ZUN/Team Shanghai Alice/Touhou Project
Necrofantasia - MP3 Youtube video (mp3 is from Magical Astronomy, video has the original from Perfect Cherry Blossom)
Magical Astronomy - MP3
Phantom Ensemble - MP3 Youtube video
History of the Moon - MP3 Youtube video
Magic Shop of Raspberry - MP3 PMD
By now, if you're a friend of mine, you've probably heard me talking about touhou project. A lot. It's this incredibly awesome series of 2D shooters with really awesome characters and storyline. And also, really excellent music. And to make it even more awesome, everything from the game programming to the music is all made by one person, ZUN.
The trumpet patch you hear is something called "Romantic Trumpet", it exists on one of the Edirol synths. It is basically trumpet with high vibrato and resonance. Magical Astronomy is especially great as he mixes sample-based synths with FM synthesis. Also Necrofantasia is the demo song for music.
Ice Age - MP3 SID
Jeroen Tel is probably one of the most prominent musicians in the demoscene, dating back to the C64 era. Most of his work was done on the SID6581, the sound chip in the Commodore 64 which was at the time cutting-edge technology (despite only having 3 voices) and which had a very distinctive sound. Later, he moved to sample-based synthesis.
Yellow Magic Orchestra
Rydeen - MP3 Youtube video Super Locomotive!
I suggest first listening to Rydeen on crappy earphones from the youtube vidya. Then switching to the mp3, and a good pair of speakers. It's like getting two songs for the price of one! Rydeen is incredibly complex, incredibly clever and amazingly good-sounding. Welcome to the band that was one of the biggest influences on Japanese vidya gaem music. At times they're almost as synthpoppy as Kraftwerk and at other times they rival classical music in terms of sheer depth and complexity.
Their vidyas also contain lots of silly analog vidya effects :D
Jean Michel Jarre
Oxygene II - MP3 Youtube video
A Frenchman, and one of the pioneers of electronic music. His music is vaguely "avant-garde" in style, and he is well-known for using a lot of instruments and effects. In Oxygene one of the really prominent aspects is theremin not being used for effects, but rather for large parts of the main melody.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Prelude and Fugue in E Major (BWV854) - Youtube video
Ah yes, who can forget good old "Four-Voice" Johann? Bach was pretty much the original chiptune composer and, to be honest, a musical genius.
Basically anything from The Well-Tempered Clavier/The Art of Fugue is perfect. Also, if anyone has a good recording (preferably the Glenn Gould version above) of the fugue I linked above, please send me it, thanks.
Also, Ancestral Recall from the Assembly 2008 music compo is also amazing.